Bergdala Spinnhus


Attempt at a survey of Swedish weaving books

This all began with a question: why do Swedes "only" weave for the home?
I decided one way of tackling this question was to do a survey of Swedish weaving books.

To do the compiling I used the catalogue of the National Library of Sweden(where, in theory, all printed material since 1661 should be extant). There are a couple of problems with this method:
- the classification: apparently the classification is more arbitrary that one would like to think. Some of the books are on the list because I knew of them, so I could search through the author's name
- not all books are in the library. I know of a couple of booklets from the '20ies or '30ies which I could not find. Nowadays the printers send everything to the library, but earlier self-publishers had to take care of that themselves. (In this case they were "self published" by Hemslöjden)

Now, to get to the books.
It can be argued books were not needed while the everyday mundane weaving was still a tradition in every home (or at least every village). I think the book list strengthens that argument: the first (many) books all are about "complex" weaving: multi-shaft; draw loom damask, ...

The books that I know (or believe) are, or declare themselves as, "text books" have been marked with *.
I should also mention that of the 166 books in the list, I probably only have seen some 60-70 myself. For the others, I have either read about them or just guess, based on the titles.
Feel free to disagree with my classifications/descriptions - send an e-mail!

1747 - 1819
To comment the list from the beginning: I know nothing about the first nine, except that something with "mönster" in the title probably concentrates on patterns (mönster means pattern), guessing that those patterns are more complicated than 4-shaft twills. "Profbok" (modern spelling provbok) means sample book.
Then we have the Ekenmark family, 1820 - 1848
I think they are a special case - they published many books, or one could call them pamphlets, five of which are on the list. (Some of them have been published in several editions, often with the word utökad, enhanced, added, but I have only listed the first occurrence.)

The Ekenmark books are, strictly speaking, text books - but they all require basic knowledge.

At least one of their books [13] describe how to build a loom (the copy I have seen had lost all illustrations, therefore I do not know how good/detailed the drawings are); another one [14] has a reasonably detailed drawing of a double flyer spinning wheel. I imagine that a good wheelwright could build one from the drawings. A transcription can be downloaded here.
I made an attempt at translating the text - there are probably errors! - first part here, second part here.

The Beckwall [12] book can be downloaded from Umeå university library (link via National Library of Sweden, here).

The Ekenmark books concentrate on "complex" weaving: multi-shaft and/or patterned by double layers, by supplementary warp or weft.
They are not strong on binding (structure) theory.

NEW: now I can offer a downloadable version of Afhandling om drällers och dubbla golfmattors tillverkningmed begagnande af harnesk-rustning [11]. Since I had to make it into several files, I made a special page for that.

The family travelled all over Sweden, holding classes. I know they had a "school" (named "Ekenmarkska wäfskolan") in Växjö for a couple of years, one in Stockholm, also a couple of years.
This fact makes me believe that they did not travel somewhere just for a couple of weeks, but this is not verified. At least one of the family (Gustava Beckwall) travelled to Norway, where she stayed for (I think) about a year.

Two Norwegian authors, Astrid Bugge and Sigrid Haugstoga tell quite a lot anbout the Ekenmark history in their book Damaskveving på bondegården (2nd edition ISBN 82-7143-015-7)
1872 - 1899
Bugge-Haugstoga also have a chapter on Lovisa Nylander, who managed to get a patent on what was essentially the Ekenmark take on a drawloom. (Patents lasted for five years at that time, I believe.)
The Nylander book [15] has some pages on the basics of weaving (but to my eyes not enough for someone not familiar with looms and weaving). She also has some binding (structure) theory. Most of the book is about complex weaving.
The book can be downloaded from the National Library of Sweden, here.

The rest of the books from the late 1800s seem to be of the "complex" type (but I am just guessing), with some exceptions (that I am sure about).
Wilhelmina Bergman's Den lilla vävboken [17] (first printed 1876, I think. It was reprinted at least 15 times) has a patent for "a technique to weave dräll patterns on four shafts" - basically what we (Swedes) today call halv-dräll. Most of her patterns are for 4-shaft looms.

The 1880 edition has one page on "general rules" for weaving. Then there is one half to one page on each of the "plates", mentioning possible uses: ladies' underclothing, frocks, men's clothing.
Most of the plates show halv-dräll, but she was also very fond of "noppväv" (picked-up loops).
The right-hand picture shows a pattern for "noppväv": "Through diligence and perseverance it will work out"

I have a Bihang till Den Lilla Vävboken (just 14 pages; bihang means appendix) for download here.
draft example     pattern for loop pick-up - 
"Through diligence and perseverance it will work out"
From the title of JO Andersson's Väfnadskonstens grunder [18] I think it is a "text book", but I haven't seen it myself.

Between 1880 and 1900 there are 18 books listed. Ten of them have, in their titles, words that suggest they are primarily pattern-oriented (konst-, mönster-, allmoge: art-, pattern-, "folk").

A few of them were either written by (at the time renowned) teachers, such as Collin [31] and v Engeström [34] (this article deals with some terminology and obsolete units used in this book).
Persson [25] writes that the book is published as a result of "several classes in efficient weaving" [countermarche and flyshuttle, my note].
I have a not-the-best-quality .pdf for download, here.

Those books can be called "text books", but, all the same, they concentrate on "recipes". They contain threadings, treadlings and tips about what the fabrics can be used for. None of them have much binding theory. They contain patterns for between two and ten shafts.
1900 - 1936
By the turn of the century the "hemslöjden movement" (inspired by the arts-and-crafts movement) was born. One of their basic ideologies was to "preserve local traditions" (and to "develop" said traditions, with the help of professional designers).
Internal difficulties resulted in a split, and from 1912 there were two organizations: Föreningen för Svensk Hemslöjd and Svenska Hemslöjdsföreningarnas Riksförbund. Nowadays the older society is a member of the umbrella organization. (There are a few pages in English on the site - just click the British flag. There are a number of books describing the development of the hemslöjden movement.)
I believe this also is the time when all the geographical names started to be used for otherwise quite spread "art" weaves:jämtlandsdräll, daldräll, smålandsväv...

With the idea of "preserving" and "developping" came, of course, "schools" and classes. (Sätergläntan, hemslöjdens gård still exists.)
With the schools came, of course, a different need for text books, but also pattern books.

From the first three decades of the 20ieth century there are fewer text books than I had thought - but perhaps the schools encouraged the students to "make their own"? (There is an abundance of handwritten notebooks from that time - for one example, see the Maja notebook from 1923.)
Söderberg [36], Hjärne-Welin [37], Vaern-Bugge [42], Collin [44], Montell [45] (downloadable from handweaving.net), Geijer [48], Krebs [49] are all examples of text books from that era (though I think Krebs is geared towards industry).
From what I have seen of these books, most need a teacher to show the practicalities, such as how to wind a warp, how to beam it and so on. I don't think there is a lot of theory in them. I have borrowed several of them, a long time ago - .
Most of them also "label" the recipes: curtains, bedcovers, pillow covers... The occasional apron can be found, too.

It was in this era that photos started to appear, all black and white, of course.

At the same time Hemslöjden published several booklets. Björk [38, 39, 41], Berger [43], Peters [50] (about whom I have written before), Modén-Olsson [51], Ödlund [52] are all examples of booklets with labelled recipes, sometimes with a "local" touch [43, 51, 52].
1937 - 1950
The first book (which I have found) looking like what we nowadays call a weaving text book (think Lundell: Stora vävboken [87]) is I vävstolen [56], first published in 1937, reprinted many times. It describes all steps needed, from a skein of yarn to the finished cloth, illustrated with photographs. It contains some basic binding theory, including analysis. (It also contains lots of recipes, most labelled - again "weaves for the home" and the occasional apron.)

From the same era (and in the same vein) we have Wallmark [57], Henriksson [61].

By the 1950ies, apart from Brodén/Wiklund [65] which is a text book for the beginner, most books seem to be geared towards what had now begun to be seen as "tradition", namely that handweaving (maybe I should call it home weaving) is only done to make "things for the home".
Look at the titles (my translations): Towels and tablecloths [66], Weaving for the home [67], Woollens: shawls, blankets [70], Rag rugs and other rugs [72], Weaving for the linen chest [74].

This period is also when the theory books begin to appear: Cyrus' book [64] is called Handbok i vävning, but is really a book on binding (structure) theory. Next comes Getzmann [76]. (Both have been reprinted several times, also translated to English).

From the '30ies up to about now Hemslöjden also published many "Mönsterblad" - they often were literally that: a page, maybe two, with a (pattern) recipe. They could describe a rag rug, or a table runner, a cushion cover (or, for that matter, a knitting pattern for a "typical" pullover - there were "Mönsterblad" for woodwork too).
1970 - now
From the 1970ies and on, when weaving had become a romantic hobby, we find lots of "old" and/or "local tradition" books.
One remarkable author is Ann-Kristin Hallgren, who has published a number of recipe books leaning on "tradition" - a somewhat sloppy count gives about 20 titles, in addition to the number of almanacs (at least 15) she also compiled. (For some reason many of the almanacs are missing from the Library catalogue.)

Another phenomenon that started in the late '70ies (the earlierst that I know of is Bolstervarsrandningar [88] from 1977) is for local history groups to inventory and document textiles, sometimes publishing locally, sometimes as books "proper". What with the technical development self-publishng has become so much easier, and this trend is growing. Books numbered 102, 116, 129, 132, 135, 140, 145?, 147, 152, 158, 163, 164, 166 may not all be self-published (all may not even be what I think they are), but look like examples of the "analyze/document/publish" trend.

This era is also when rag rug books started to abound. Apart from one Mönsterblad [55] and one book from 1958 [72], the rag books started to come out in 1970 [78], followed by '73 [83], '74 [84], '79 [94], '83 [103], '84 [105], '88 [117], '91 [125], '95 [133], '95 [134], '99 [141], '06 [153] and one more in '06 [154]. That means 13 rag books in 40 years, compared to one in the preceding 220 years... Of course, technically speaking, weaving rag rugs was not legal until about 1850 (all linen and cotton rags had to be sent to the paper mills, read more rag facts here), but, taking that in account, we still have only one book in 120 years. (Another way of counting is 200 years without nary a mention of rag rugs, followed by 14 books in 55 years.)

The new "technical" era may have started with Johansson Opphämta och damast [100] from 1982. In 1993 followed Eriksson/Gustavsson/Lovallius Väv gamla och glömda tekniker [128], same authors' Varp och inslag [138] from '99.
It is possible to include Lundell's Ripsvävar [111] and, perhaps v Weisz' Skaftväxling [146] in this category, but both have rather narrow scopes for the theory chapters.

Last, but not least, there are the "wild and crazy" books - Väva fritt i ram och vävstol [81] from 1972, Väv rätt och slätt: från spindelväv till taggtråd [131] (the title is a play on words: "weave right (correct) and plain", but it can also be understood as "just weave!" - from spiders' webs to barbed wire), Väv som aldrig förr [149] (another word-play: weave like never before) and Väv som vi! [162]. (Note: there are only 2-3 authors who "dare" to play...)

It surprised me that there were no real "hippie" books, but I know there are many about both knitting and macramé - maybe the publishers didn't think there would be a market for weaving books in that vein?
 
Book list as of 2015-12-08 in .pdf, here.

1 Siberg, A M von Väfbok 1747    
2 Törnsten Ol J Lijngarns uprännande til Lerfter 1757    
3 Nordengren H M Wäfmönster af åtskillige sorter 1783    
4 Segerstedt A J Tabeller f linneväfnader 1804    
5 Öhman Hedda Ulrika Uträkning i linne-wäfnader 1809    
6 Könsberg Maria Elisabeth Mönsterbok 1817    
7 Ekenmark JE Handbok för unga fruntimmer i konsten att tillverka bomulls- och linne-wäfnader, efter engelska uppgifter och egna försök 1820 * Essentially a translation of Duncan's Practical and Descriptive Essays on the Art of Weaving
8 Gruwald E D Väfbok 1821    
9 Siberg Beata Profbok 1825    
10 Ekenmark Maria Christina (Trolle) Mönster-bok för unga fruntimmer i konsten att tillverka vackra façonerade och dubble wäfnader 1826 * facsimile 1984; ISBN 91-7844-008-4
11 Ekenmark JE och systrar Afhandling om drällers och dubbla golfmattors tillverkningmed begagnande af harnesk-rustning 1828 *  
12 Beckwall, Gustava (Ekenmark) Handbok i väfnads-konsten 1834 *  
13 Ekenmark Gustaf & hustru Lärobok i väfnads- och linspinningskonsten 1847 *  
14 Ekenmark Gustaf & hustru Nya Magerska linspinnings-methoden 1848    
15 Nylander Lovisa Lärobok i ny patenterad konstvävning 1872 *  
16 Wallin Anna Mönstebok för väfnader i hemmet 1873    
17 Bergman Wilhelmina Den lilla vävboken 1876    
18 Andersson, JO Väfnadskonstens grunder 1880 *  
19   Mönsterbok för slöjdundervisn i hem o skolor 1880    
20   Den Qvinliga hemslöjden i Sverige 1880    
21 Andersson Lovisa Handbok till konstvävnad 1885    
22 Wallin Anna Väfnadsmönster med tygprover 1885    
23 Collin Maria Skånsk konstvävnad i allmogestil 1890    
24 Kulle Jakob Svenska mönster 1891    
25 Persson L Väf-bok för mekanisk handväfstol 1891 *  
26   Vävbok 1891    
27 Dahm Hjalmar Väfverskornas Hjälpreda 1893    
28 CH R-Y Väfbok 1894    
29 Ch. R-y (Posse, Eva…) Väfbok skånska allmoge… 1894    
30 Collin Maria Skånsk konstvävnad i allmogestil, utvidgad uppl 1894    
31 Collin Maria Våra hemväfnader 1895    
32 C M mönstersamling för skola och hem 1897    
33 Andersson Emma Moster Emmas väfbok 1899    
34 Engeström Nina von Praktisk vävbok 1899 * facsimile 1981, ISBN 91-7120-142-4; eng transl 2009
35 Hamberg Olga Mönster för gobelinsömnad och konstväfnad 1899    
36 Söderberg Augusta Vävbok för nybörjare 1901 *  
37 Hjärne-Welin Ebba Vävbok för hem och skola 1907 *  
38 Björk Gerda Ny vävbok 1912    
39 Björk/ Johansson/Palmgren Sigrid Ny vävbok 1 1912    
40 Zickerman Lilly Tygprover 1912    
41 Björk Gerda Ny vävbok 2 1913    
42 Vaern-Bugge Elisabeth Hemmets vävbok 1914 *  
43 Berger Alexander Jämtlands-o-Härjedalsvävar 1915    
44 Collin Knut J Handbok i vävning för självstudier och skolor 1924 *?  
45 Montell Aina Vävboken 1925 *  
46 Palmgren Sigrid Praktisk vävbok 1926    
47 Collin Maria Flamsk och finnväv 1927    
48 Geijer Agnes Vävning i hemmet 1928 *?  
49 Krebs Artur Vävnadsanalys och garnberäkningar 1928 *  
50 Peters Hulda Vävbok 1928    
51 Modén-Olsson Maria Jämtlandsdräll 1929    
52 Ödlund Eva Östgötavävnader 1932    
53 Svensson Ottilia Praktisk vävbok 1934    
54 Ödlund Eva Vävbok för hem och skola 1934    
55 Oscarsson Svea-Greta Mönsterskisser t trasmattor och ryor 1935    
56 Skeri-Mattsson/Osvald I vävstolen 1937 *  
57 Wallmark Elsa Väv själv din väv 1937 *  
58 JKF Kortfattad vävteori vid JKF 1938 *  
59 Block Mary Den stora vävboken 1939 *?  
60 Föreningen Svensk Hemslöjd Mönsterblad 1939    
61 Henriksson Anna Lärobok i vävning (2 uppl) 1939 *  
62 Jondal Marika Modern vävning 1939    
63   Märthaskolan 1941    
64 Cyrus Ulla Handbok i vävning 1949 *  
65 Brodén Märta , Wiklund Signild Vävning 1952 *  
66 Ingers Gertrud Handdukar och duktyg 1954    
67 Lundbäck Maja Vi väver till hemmet: möbeltyger, gardiner, sängtäcken, draperier 1954    
68 Selander Malin Vävmönster 1954    
69   Mönsterblad 1954    
70 Tillquist Hilda Yllevävar: schalar, plädar, filtar, tyger, konstvävar 1956    
71   Mönsterblad 1957    
72 Brodén Märta, Ingers Gertrud Trasmattor och andra mattor 1958    
73 Selander Malin Handvävt 1958    
74 Ingers Gertrud Väva för linneskåpet 1962    
75 Ingers Gertrud Roligt att väva 1965    
76 Getzmann Ulla Bindningslära 1966 *  
77 Ingers Gertrud Flamskvävnad 1967    
78 Ingers Gertrud Trolla med trasor 1970    
79 Getzmann Ulla Bindningslära 2 1971 *  
80 Sandberg Ingrid Vävning: arbetsinstruktioner för gymnasieskolan 1971 *  
81 Hoppe/östlund/Melén Väva fritt i ram och vävstol 1972    
82 Arlenborg Ingrid Finnväv som den vävs i Bohuslän 1973    
83 Johnson Astrid Väva trasmattor: modeller i färg och svart-vitt 1973    
84 Nordin Eva-Lisa Trasmattor: 44 modeller i färg 1974    
85 Melén Lisa Festremsor och gilledukar 1975    
86 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Lär dig väva 1976 *?  
87 Lundell Laila Stora vävboken 1976 *  
88 Larsson Margareta Bolstervarsrandningar 1977    
89 Melén Lisa Väva gardiner 1977    
90 Boalt Eivor Lands vävbok 1978    
91 Boalt Eivor Lands vävskola: 8 lektioner i vävuppsättning 1978 *  
92 Grönvall Irene, Sandell Kerstin Bruksvävar 1978    
93 Machschefes Annelie Väva finnväv på lätt sätt 1979    
94 Nilsson Anna-Stina Väv med trasor och stränggarn 1979    
95 Getzmann Ulla Variera i väven 1980    
96 Svensson Leena 43 vävar av en enda varp 1980    
97 Larsson Pirkko Rundväv och dubbelbreda vävar 1981    
98 Askling Inga Vi väver med Göta 1982 *  
99 Gunnars Anita Alla våra vävar 1982    
100 Johansson Lillemor Opphämta och damast 1982 *  
101 Arndt Agneta Redskap och uppsättning 1983 *  
102 Fredrikson Olenborg Pia Myggtjäll, daldräll och karelsk spets 1983    
103 Johnson Astrid, mfl Vackra trasmattor och andra vävar 1983    
104 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Väva rutigt: förningsdukar, halskläden, huvuddukar 1984    
105 Nilsson Anna-Stina 25 trasmattor 1984    
106 Svensson Leena 44 vävar av en cottolinvarp 1984    
107 Westman Elin Vävning för alla: grundbok f cirklar o hemmabruk 1984 *  
108 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Väv med tradition 1985    
109 Hålling Inger Vävning: kunskap, fantasi 1985 *  
110   100 modeller att väva 1985    
111 Lundell Laila Ripsvävar 1986    
112 Selander Malin Väv en väv 1986    
113   Väva med Bergå 1986    
114 Eriksson/Getzmann/Lovallius Uträkning och montering 1988    
115 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Väv i vitt och pastell 1988    
116 Thomasson Anna Daldräll 1988    
117 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Trasmattsboken 1988    
118 Malmius Anita Bindningslära: traditionell och på dator 1989 *  
119   Vävgodis från Vävmagasinet 1989    
120 Nilsson Ann-Mari Väv tyger till kläder 1989    
121 Kongbäck Ylva Linnevävar 1989    
122 Selander Malin Vävar med färg 1990    
123   Johanna Brunssons vävskola 1990    
124 Gustafsson Inger Vävkonst: teknik, idé komposition 1991    
125 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Vävda mattor: tras- rips- nöthårs 1991    
126   Damast (ur vävmagasinet, min anm) 1991    
127 Gustafsson Kerstin Väv: skapa från grunden 1992 *  
128 Eriksson/Gustavsson/Lovallius Väv gamla och glömda tekniker 1993 *  
129 Wiklund Doris Gamla vävnader fr Norrbotten 1993    
130   Mera vävgodis från Vävmagasinet 1993    
131 Eriksson Mariana Väv rätt och slätt: från spindelväv till taggtråd 1995    
132 Viksten Strömbom Åsa (årtal osäkert) Bottentäcken och vävarbröderna i Kubbe 1995    
133   Trasor och tekniker: 35 nya mattor 1995    
134 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Så fint med trasmattor 1995    
135 Wiklund Doris Gamla svenska vänader från norr till söder 1996    
136 Hallgren Ann-Kristin, Hallén Monica Sköna kuddar 1997    
137 Hallgren Ann-Kristin, Hallén Monica Vackert att väva 1998    
138 Eriksson/Gustavsson/Lovallius Varp och inslag 1999    
139 Kongbäck Ylva Väv i halm 1999    
140 Lindqvist Gerd (red) Textilier från Hälsingegårdar:18 vävar att väva själv 1999    
141 Hallgren Ann-Kristin, Hallén Monica Alla tiders trasmattor 1999    
142 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Mera fint att väva 2001    
143 Eriksson/Gustavsson/Lovallius Vävboken: uträkning, uppsättning, montering 2002 *  
144 Fröberg Kerstin Väva i vinkel 2003    
145 Nessle Lena Väva efter gamla mönster 2003    
146 Weisz Gisela von Skaftväxling 2004 *  
147 Wiklund Doris Det gamla linneskåpet: från tuskaft till damast 2004    
148   Vävglädje från Vävmagasinet 2004    
149 Eriksson Mariana Väv som aldrig förr 2005    
150 Hallgren Ann-Kristin En rand och några rutor 2005    
151 Johansson Gunvor Väv skånska allmogevävnader 2005    
152 Eriksson Mariana Gefle ångväveri: från industri till handvävning 2006    
153 Ignell Tina Trasmattor & andra inslag 2006    
154 Hallgren Ann-Kristin, Hallén Monica Älskade trasmattor: att väva som förr 2006    
155 Eriksson/Lovallius En bok om vävning = A book on weaving 2008 *?  
156 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Handdukar: väv i lin och bomull 2008    
157 Ignell Tina Hemvävt: 45 inredningsvävar 2008    
158 Jägerung Siv Räknade trådar: nya vävar 2008    
159 Martinsson Åsa Datorn i vävningen 2008    
160 Hallgren Ann-Kristin Kalasfina vävar 2009    
161 Bengtsson Björk Birgitta Nya vävar: klassiska mönster i ny form 2011    
162 Eriksson/Lovallius Väv som vi! 2011    
163   Amandas mönster: nya vävar 2011    
164 Lindman Nilsson Gerd Väv! Jämtlandsdräll, Österbottnisk dräll, crackle weave… och blommande daldräll 2012    
165 Nilsson Ann-Mari Väv på fyra skaft! 2012    
166 Östlund Anna Rosengång: berättelser, historik, vävar 2012    
167 Eriksson/Lovallius Bärbart 2014    

  © Kerstin Fröberg 2015